Introduction to SQL

SQL tutorial gives unique learning on Structured Query Language and it helps to make practice on SQL commands which provides immediate results. SQL is a language of database, it includes database creation, deletion, fetching rows and modifying rows etc.

SQL is an ANSI (American National Standards Institute) standard but there are many different versions of the SQL language.

Our SQL tutorial will teach you how to use SQL to access and manipulate data in: MySQL, SQL Server, Access, Oracle, Sybase, DB2, and other database systems.

What is SQL?

  • SQL stands for Structured Query Language
  • SQL lets you access and manipulate databases
  • SQL is an ANSI (American National Standards Institute) standard

What Can SQL do?

  • SQL can execute queries against a database
  • SQL can retrieve data from a database
  • SQL can insert records in a database
  • SQL can update records in a database
  • SQL can delete records from a database
  • SQL can create new databases
  • SQL can create new tables in a database
  • SQL can create stored procedures in a database
  • SQL can create views in a database
  • SQL can set permissions on tables, procedures, and views

 

History:

  • 1970 — Dr. E.F. "Ted" of IBM is known as the father of relational databases. He described a relational model for databases.

  • 1974 — Structured Query Language appeared.

  • 1978 — IBM worked to develop Codd's ideas and released a product named System/R.

  • 1986 — IBM developed the first prototype of relational database and standardized by ANSI. The first relational database was released by Relational Software and its later becoming Oracle.

 

SQL Process:

When you are executing an SQL command for any RDBMS, the system determines the best way to carry out your request and SQL engine figures out how to interpret the task.

There are various components included in the process. These components are Query Dispatcher, Optimization engines, Classic Query Engine and SQL query engine etc. Classic query engine handles all non-SQL queries but SQL query engine won't handle logical files.

Following is a simple digram showing SQL Architecture:

sql-architecture

 

Using SQL in Your Web Site

To build a web site that shows data from a database, you will need:

  • An RDBMS database program (i.e. MS Access, SQL Server, MySQL)
  • To use a server-side scripting language, like PHP or ASP
  • To use SQL to get the data you want
  • To use HTML / CSS

 

RDBMS

RDBMS stands for Relational Database Management System.

RDBMS is the basis for SQL, and for all modern database systems such as MS SQL Server, IBM DB2, Oracle, MySQL, and Microsoft Access.

The data in RDBMS is stored in database objects called tables.

A table is a collection of related data entries and it consists of columns and rows.

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